Korg M3: Glossary

The purpose of this page is to provide a glossary of terminology used in the Korg M3, with descriptions of various terms encountered in manuals, discussions, and daily operation of the Korg M3.

Any entry which invokes terminology specific to the M3, KARMA, or basic music theory will have those terms linked to their own definition. (It should be noted that this glossary is not meant to be an exhaustive listing of musical theory terms)

Please try to add your entries to this list in alphabetical order.

Go to: A - B - C - D - E - F - G - H - I - J - K - L - M - N - O - P - Q - R - S - T - U - V - W - X - Y - Z


Aftertouch : definition
The measure of how hard the user presses down on a key AFTER the key has been initially depressed. Aftertouch can be used to control note volume, vibrato, etc.

Aftertouch Calibration : command
When this instrument is shipped from the factory, the aftertouch sensitivity is adjusted to a standard value. In normal use, you won’t need to perform this calibration again. However, you may customize the aftertouch sensitivity as described below. Try this if you want the aftertouch to be a bit lighter. Play the keyboard from the same position as when you’re actually performing, so that you can adjust the sensitivity ideally for your own playing style. See also Global Menu Command.

AIFF file definition
Audio Interchange File Format (AIFF) is an audio file format standard used for storing sound data on personal computers. AIFF is a non-compressed file storage format and is handled the same as a WAVE (WAV or .WAV) file is. On the M3 a sample you recorded can be exported (written) as a WAVE file or AIFF file.

Amp - Instrument Amplitude : definition
The volume curve of different instruments. For example, the volume of a piano note begins at a high volume the instant you play the note, and then decreases gradually. The volume of an organ note, on the other hand, remains constant as long as you continue pressing the key. The volume of a note on a violin or wind instrument can be varied during the note by the musician (i.e., by regulating the amount of pressure on the bow or the force of the breath).

Amp Drive, driver circuit : description
The Drive circuit adds saturation and overdrive to the sound, for everything from subtle fattening to drastic distortion. Unlike an overdrive effect, Drive processes each voice individually, so the timbre stays the same regardless of how many voices are being played. The two main parameters, Drive and Low Boost, work together to create the overall effect.

Amp EG : definition
The Amp EG lets you control how the volume changes over the course of a note.

Amp Section : definition
The Amp section includes controls for volume, pan, and the driver circuit. You can control the volume using the Amp EG, LFO 1/2, Key Track, and velocity, along with other AMS sources. Each Oscillator has its own Amp section: Amp1 for OSC1, and Amp2 for OSC2. See also Amp, and Amp EG.

AMS : definition
Alternate Modulation Source, refers to any of the assignable modulation sources in M3 including: Controllers such as the joystick or ribbon controller; Built-in physical controllers, such as the Real-Time Sliders; Incoming MIDI controllers, or MIDI controllers generated by KARMA or the X–Y control; and Modulators such as the Filter, Pitch, and Amp EGs, the LFOs, or the AMS Mixers. See also Intensity.

AMS Mixer : definition
The AMS Mixers combine two AMS sources into one, or process an AMS source to make it into something new. For instance, they can add two AMS sources together, or use one AMS source to scale the amount of another. You can also use them to change the shapes of LFOs and EGs in various ways, modify the response of realtime controllers, and more. You can also cascade the two AMS Mixers together, by using AMS Mixer 1 as an input to AMS Mixer 2.

Arp/Arpeggio : definition
An arpeggio is a broken chord where the notes are played or sounded in sequence, one after the other, rather than ringing out simultaneously. The M3's KARMA Technology allows for the creation of arpeggios and the simulation of many types of arpeggiators, as well as other musical generation.

Audio Inputs : physical controller
There are two Audio inputs located on the back of the M3-Module. They use unbalanced 1/4" phone jacks, located next to the input jacks are the Level Knobs and the MIC/LINE switches. The Audio Inputs can be used for audio sampling, and real-time mixing through the built in effects.

Audio Outputs : physical connectors
All of the analog audio outputs use unbalanced 1/4" phone jacks, referenced to a +4dBu signal level. Connect these outputs to the input jacks of your external amplifier or external mixing board. In addition to the L/MONO and R main stereo audio outputs, the M3 provides eight individual audio outputs. The sound from each oscillator, drum, timbre/track, or insert effect can be freely routed to any output. Additionally, you can route the metronome sound to an individual output, to separate it from the stereo mix.

Audio Outputs Individual (1-4) : physical connectors
These 4 additional audio outputs let you isolate sounds, or audio inputs for recording or complex live sound setups. These can be used as stereo or mono outputs, in any combination. You can also use the Global P0: Basic Setup– Audio page L/R Bus Indiv. Out Assign parameter to map the main stereo outputs to any of these output pairs, if you like. Note that the individual outputs are not affected by the VOLUME MAIN slider.

Auto-Punch-In : command
A specified area delineated by a user defined starting measure and ending measure, is first set. Playback of the song is initiated, once the playhead reaches the starting measure the recording will start automatically and continue until the playhead reaches the ending measure.
With this method, the musical data previously on the track is overwritten by the newly recorded data.

Auto Song Setup : definition
The Auto Song Setup feature copies the current Program or Combination into a Song, and then puts the M3 in record-ready mode. If inspiration for a phrase or song strikes you while you’re playing, you can use this function to start recording immediately.


Band Pass Filter : description
See Band Pass (6dB/oct) for more information.

Band Reject Filter : description
See Band Reject (6dB/oct) for more information.

Banks : description, physical controllers
Banks are used for sound storage, both programs and combinations. There are 14 selectable Banks. They are labeled Internal-A through to Internal-G, and User-A through to User-B. See Bank Select switches for further information.

Bank Select switches : physical controllers
This is a bank of 14 switches located in the upper right of the M3-Module. Depending on the Mode selected the Bank Select switches will access different sound sets, Program Mode causes the Banks to access a variety of programs, Combi Mode causes the Banks to access a variety of Combinations. In all cases the sound sets are divided into the Banks as follows;
Int-A…Int-E contain Factory Sets.
Int-F contains EXB-Radius sets if the EXB-Radius has been installed.
Int-G contains 256 GM sets and nine GM drum sets.
U-A…U-G are user definable as either EDS or EXB-Radius Banks. This can be set in the Global mode menu.
U-F is the recommended place to store user sampling.

Beep Enable : description
A user settable function that, when turned on, causes a 'beep' to sound whenever an item on the main display is selected.

Boost - Low Boost
One of two main parameters in the Amp Drive circuit. Low Boost is a special low-frequency EQ which controls the body character of the sound. The specific EQ frequencies affected will change with the Drive setting. Higher amounts increase the bass boost, and will also intensify the effect of the Drive parameter.

Bounce Pattern : command
This command combines the musical data of the bounce source pattern and bounce destination pattern, and places the combined musical data in the bounce destination.

Bounce Track : command
This command combines the musical data of the bounce source and bounce destination tracks, and places the combined data in the bounce destination. All musical data in the bounce source will be erased.

BPM : definition
Beats per minute (BPM) is a unit typically used as a measure of tempo in music. A rate of 60 bpm means that one beat will occur every second.


Calendar : description
See Setting the Date and Time for details

Calendar Battery : description
The calendar battery maintains the time and date that are recorded each time you save data. The M3 uses a CR2032 battery made by Sony or Panasonic.

Category : definition
Programs, Combinations, and KARMA GEs are organized into categories and sub-categories. Categories make it easy to find a particular type of sound, such as keyboards, bass, or drums, or a specific type of KARMA GE, such as arpeggios or gated patterns. Each main category also has up to 8 sub-categories, for finer degrees of organization. For instance, the Program keyboard category has sub-categories for acoustic pianos, real electric pianos, synth electric pianos, and clavs and harpsichords. Anywhere that you can select Programs, Combinations, or KARMA GEs by bank and number, you can also select them from the category pop-up.

CC's : definition
See Midi CC's

Change all Bank References : command
This command changes all program banks specified for timbres in combinations or tracks of songs. See also [#GlobalMenuCommand].

Chord : definition
A group of (typically three or more) notes sounded together, as a basis of harmony.

Combination : definition
Combinations, let you split and layer up to 16 Programs at once. A Combination is made up of 16 Timbres. Each Timbre has a Program, along with parameters for key and velocity zones, mixer settings, MIDI channel and controller filtering, and so on. As with Programs, each Combination has five insert effects, two master effects, and one total effect, for shaping and transforming the sounds of the individual Timbres. See also Combination Mode.

Combination Mode : description
Combinations are sets of up to 16 programs that can be played simultaneously, letting you create sounds more complex than a single Program. In Combination mode, you can:
Select and play Combinations
• Use a maximum of four KARMA modules to generate phrases.
• Use one timbre to play back Drum Track patterns.
• Use M3 as a 16-track multitimbral tone generator
• Sample or resample:
For example you can sample an external audio source while listening to the performance of the KARMA, or resample a performance you play using a combination.
• Edit Combinations:
Assign Programs to each of the 16 Timbres, each with separate volume, pan, EQ, and keyboard and velocity zones; make settings for effects, X–Y control, and KARMA.

Common FX-LFO : definition
Two Common FX LFOs are available for modulation effects, such as choruses, filters, phasers, etc. In the P8–Common FX LFO page of Program, Combination, Sequencer, or Sampling modes, you can specify the reset conditions and speed of Common FX LFO 1 and 2. Normally, the LFOs of two or more modulation-type effects used simultaneously will not have synchronized phase even if you set them to the identical Frequency, since the LFOs are being generated independently. However if you select Common 1 or Common 2 for the
LFO Type parameter of a modulation-type effect, the effect will use not its own individual LFO but the Common LFO you specify here. This allows you to use a single Common FX LFO to simultaneously control two or more modulation-type effects such as flanger, phaser, or auto pan with the same phase. Since you can make independent settings for LFO waveform and phase offset for each effect, you are free to create complex combinations of effects.

Common LFO : definition
Each Oscillator has two LFOs: LFO1 and LFO2. There is also a single Common LFO, shared by both Oscillators.While LFO1 and LFO2 are separate for each voice, the Common LFO is shared by all voices in the Program. This makes it useful when you want all of the voices to have an identical LFO effect.

Compare : definition
When you’re in the process of editing a sound, pressing the COMPARE switch will recall the saved version of the sound, as it was before you started editing. See Number Pad COMPARE Switch for more information.

Connection : description
The M3 can be connected to a variety of external equipment such as Audio, Computers, other MIDI devices, and USB devices. See the Operations Guide for in depth details including connection diagrams. See also Digital Audio Device Connection

Control Assign External switch : physical controller
Located on the left hand side of the M3-Module and just to the right of the Main Volume slider.
This switch lets you send MIDI messages to external MIDI devices. Use the Global P1: MIDI External Mode 1/2 page to specify the MIDI message that will be transmitted.

Control Assign KARMA switch : physical controller
Located on the left hand side of the M3-Module immediately to the right of the Volume slider. The KARMA switch allows Realtime control of the sliders and switches to control the KARMA function.

Control Assign Mixer switch : physical controller
Located on the left hand side of the M3-Module and just to the right of the Main Volume slider.
The user can use the control surface to control the audio input volume, Play/Mute and Solo On/Off status of the analog inputs, S/P DIF inputs, and FireWire inputs (if the EXB-FW is installed).

Control Assign Realtime Control switch : physical controller
Located on the left hand side of the M3-Module and just to the right of the Main Volume slider.
This switch allows the sliders to control the sound or effects. Use the switches to turn effects on/off.

Control Assign SwitchGroup : physical controllers
Located on the left hand side of the M3-Module and just to the right of the Main Volume slider. These switches control the assignments of the Switches, Keys 1-8, KARMA Key Group, etc. The keys in the group are:
Control Assign Mixer Switch
Control Assign Realtime Control Switch
Control Assign External Switch
Control Assign Tone Adjust Switch
Control Assign KARMA Switch

Control Assign Tone Adjust switch : physical controller
Located on the left hand side of the M3-Module and just to the right of the Main Volume slider.
This switch lets you edit Programs within the context of the Combination, and without making any changes to the original Program data. You also get hands-on access to these edits, using the sliders and switches.

Controller Setting : description
The Prog P0: Play– Main page lets you view the following information:
• SW1, SW2: Indicates the functions controlled by the SW1/SW2 switches of the keyboard.
• C.S.: Indicates the currently selected control assign setting. Control via the control surface is active in all pages.
• FILTER 1, 2: Indicates the filter type setting for filter 1 and 2.
• AMP EG 1, 2: Indicates the EG setting for amp 1 and 2.
• EQ (Low, Mid[Hz], Mid, High): Indicates the 3-band EQ settings. You can use the VALUE controller to edit the values.

Control Surface : physical controller
The M3 has a powerful Control Surface that covers many functions and uses. Eight switches and eight sliders can be used as a mixer between the two oscillators and the Drum Track in Program Mode, the sixteen timbres in Combi and Sequencer Modes, and for the audio inputs. In Realtime control Mode the switches are used as IFX, MFX and TFX on/off toggles, and the sliders control Filter Cutoff, Resonance, EG Intensity and Release plus four user-assignable controls. External Mode allows the switches and sliders to be set to transmit CC's to external hardware and software, with 128 Scene Templates available. Tone Adjust uses the controls to easily tweak sound parameters of your choosing for each Program, Combi Timbre and Sequencer Track. Finally, in KARMA Mode the sliders, switches, plus the bottom row of seven additional switches provide highly interactive control over the assigned KARMA patterns.

TBD: All of these "Convert" and "Copy" entries should show what exactly what page/tab the Menu Command is available from!

Convert : description
Allows the user to change items like lists into songs, patterns into tracks, etc. There are three different Conversions available, they are;
Convert a Cue List into a Song.
Convert a User pattern into a Drum Track Pattern.
Convert a Multisample to a Program.

Convert a Cue List into a Song : description
Although it is not possible to record additional material onto tracks in a cue list, you can convert a cue list to a song, and then record solos etc. on vacant tracks. You will also need to convert a cue list to a song if you wish to save it on a media as SMF data. The cue list name will automatically be assigned as the song name of the converted data. If you select a new song as the conversion destination, it is not necessary to specify Set Length in the dialog box that appears. The number of measures in the converted song will be used. Press the OK button, and the Convert Cue List dialog box will appear.

Convert a Multisample to a Program : description
In pages P0: Recording–P4: Controllers, you can select and execute the Convert MS To Program menu command. When you execute this command, the settings of the currently selected multisample will be converted into a program. In Program mode you can make filter, amp and effect settings etc., and play the sample as a program. The resulting Program can be used in a Combination or Song.

Convert to Drum Track Pattern : command
This command converts a user pattern into a user drum track pattern. This conversion lets you use a user pattern in the drum track of the various modes. The drum track pattern you convert here will be preserved in the M3’s memory even when the power is turned off, so you can manage it together with the programs and combinations.

TBD: All of these "Convert" and "Copy" entries should show what exactly what page/tab the Menu Command is available from!

Copy Cue List
Note: this is a function available from within the Cue List function, it is not a method for copying an entire Cue List
The Copy Cue List is a function available at the bottom of the Cue List page. When pressed the selected step will be copied. If you press the Insert button, the copied step will be inserted.

Copy Drum Kit : command
Note: this should be viewed as a precautionary step
When you edit a Drum Kit, all Programs that use that Drum Kit will be affected. To avoid changing the factory voicing, you may wish to copy Drum Kits to empty locations in the USER banks before editing.

Copy Effect : command
Accessed from the Prog P8: IFX– (Insert FX) Setup page, the Copy Insert Effect menu command can be used to copy effect settings from another program into the current program.

Copy from Combination : command
Here’s how you can easily copy the settings of a Combination or Program, and then record using that sound. When you’re performing in Program or Combination mode, you can use the Auto Song Setup function to automatically set up the settings of that program or combination into a song. Alternatively, you can use the Sequencer mode menu commands Copy From Combi and Copy from Program to set up a song in a similar

Copy from Program : command
See [CopyfromCombination Copy from Combination] for details.

Copy from Song : command
This command copies all of the setting data and musical data from the specified song
to the currently selected song.

Copy Index : command
Indexes are created when editing a multisample. To change the number or order of the indexes, use the Insert, Cut, Copy, and Create buttons.

Copy KARMA Module : command
You can use the Copy KARMA Module menu command to copy the KARMA function settings (EG selection, KARMA module parameter settings, etc.) from another program.

Copy Key Setup : command
Allows the user to copy settings from one key to another, using the Copy Key Setup menu command.

Copy Measure : command
This command copies the measures of musical data specified as the “From” source to the beginning of the measure specified as the “To” location. When you execute the Copy Measure command, the existing track data at the copy destination will be rewritten.

Copy Oscillator
Many of the Program parameters can be set differently for OSC1 and OSC2. These include all of the parameters on:
• All of the tabs on the OSC/Pitch page, except for the Pitch EG
• All of the tabs on the Filter page
• All of the tabs on the Amp/EQ page, except for EQ
• All of the tabs on the LFO page, except for Common LFO
• The AMS Mixer tabs
You can use the menu’s Copy Oscillator command to copy these parameters from one Oscillator to another. You can even copy parameters from an Oscillator in a different Program.
This command is useful when you want to set both Oscillators to the same settings, or when you want to duplicate settings you’ve used before.

Copy Pad Setup : command
Copying one pad to another can be done from this dialog - the result is just like assigning notes from the keyboard.

Copy Pattern : command
This command copies the settings and musical data of the selected pattern to another pattern.

Copy Pattern to Track : command
See Copy to Track for details.

Copy Scale : command
A menu command available within the User Scales page that allows the user to copy one of the preset scales and edit it to create an original scale.

Copy to Track : command
This command copies the specified area of musical data from the specified pattern to a track as musical data. Unlike the Put To Track command, this command actually writes the musical data of the pattern into the track, so that you can edit the copied data in the track. Even if you later edit the copy source pattern, the musical data of the song will not be affected.

Copy Track : command
This command copies musical data from the copy source track to the specified track.

Create Control Data : command
This command creates control change, aftertouch, pitch bend, or tempo data in the specified region of a MIDI track or the master track.

Cue List : feature
The Cue List is a sequential list of songs to be played back. The M3 lets you create twenty cue lists of up to 99 songs each with each song being allowed to repeat as specified by the user. The menu command Convert to Song lets you convert the songs in a cue list into a single song. For example you can use a cue list to create the backing, convert the cue list to a song, and then add solo phrases on unused tracks.

Cutoff Frequency : definition
The Cutoff Frequency is the frequency in a filter at which point an emphasis is placed. The emphasis can be anything from zero change, (anything after that point drops off smoothly) to a high change which can result in a whistling pitch in the resonance.


Damper Pedal : physical controller
The damper pedal is also sometimes called the sustain pedal. It acts like the similarly-named pedal on an acoustic piano; when you hold down the pedal, notes will continue to sustain even when you lift your hands off of the keyboard. You can use either a standard footswitch (such as the Korg PS-1) or a special half-damper pedal (such as the Korg DS-1H) as the Damper.
If you use a footswitch, it will work like a normal synthesizer sustain pedal: notes will sustain forever, as long as the pedal is held down. A half-damper pedal is a special type of continuous
foot pedal (normal foot pedals won’t work properly for this application). It offers more subtle control of sustain, which can be especially useful for piano sounds.

Data Filer : function
The M3 can receive MIDI System Exclusive data sent by an external device, and save this data to media. (This is sometimes referred to as “Data Filer” functionality.)

Delay Timbre : description
You can set some Timbres so that they don’t sound immediately at note-on. This can create cool effects, and more dramatic layers. You can specify the delay for each Timbre either in milliseconds (ms), or in rhythmic values which sync to the system tempo. If you set the Delay to Key Off, the Timbre will sound when the note is released.Effects are covered in their own section of the manuals, so we won’t go into too much detail here.

Delete Measure : command
This command deletes the specified measures. When the Delete Measure command is executed, the musical data following the deleted measures will be moved towards the beginning of the sequence.

Delete Song : command
This command deletes the currently selected song. All musical data, settings data, and patterns, etc, of the selected song are also erased. The memory area that the song and data occupied will also be freed.

DeTune : definition
In a layer-type combination, you can set two or more timbres to the same program, and create a richer sound by using Detune to create a slight difference in pitch between the two. See also Transpose.

Digital Audio Device Connection : description
If you’re connecting multiple digital audio devices via S/P DIF, set one device as the master and the remaining devices as slaves. If you want the M3 to be the master, set System Clock to Internal. If you want the M3 to be a slave, set System Clock to S/P DIF.

Display : definition
The Display, which is referred to variously as 'display', 'Main display', and 'TouchView', is the central LCD display on the M3-Module.

DMod/Dynamic Modulation : definition
Dynamic modulation (Dmod) lets you use MIDI messages or the M3’s controllers to modulate specific effect parameters in real-time. You can control certain effect parameters using the joystick, X–Y, ribbon controller, etc. “on the fly.” These parameters can also be controlled by KARMA, the X–Y control and EG, or the sequencer. Controlling effects in this way is referred to as Dynamic Modulation. For example, you can use After Touch to speed up the LFO of the chorus and flanger, or you can use the ribbon controller to sweep a wah effect. This lets you take full advantage of the effects as part of the expressive potential of your instrument. See also Tempo Synchronization

Double Program : definition
This is a selectable function within the Basic Oscillator Settings page, under the Oscillator Mode heading. Double Programs have two oscillators. Each oscillator is a multisample that is switched by a crossfade velocity switch. You can use dual filters, EG, and LFO to create the sound. See also Single Program and Drum Program.

Double Size Effects : description
See Effects for details.

Drive - Amp Drive : description, parameter
One of two parameters in the Amp Drive circuit. Drive controls the amount of edge and bite in the timbre. Low settings will produce mild saturation, and higher settings create more obvious distortion. Often, it’s useful to increase the Low Boost along with the Drive.

Drum Kit : definition
A drum kit is a collection of drumsamples assigned to each key. Drum kits have the following features;
• A different sound will play for each note.
• A drumsample (one drum instrument) is assigned to each key. Drum samples are stored in the Rom bank, Ram bank, or in an EX * bank.
• Samples you recorded on the M3 or loaded in Media mode can be selected from the RAM bank.
• On each note, you can use up to four Drumsamples, with velocity crossfades
• Each note has separate settings for the most important sound parameters, including volume, filter cutoff and resonance, envelope attack and decay, pitch, drive and low boost, and gain for each band of the Program EQ. For instance, you could combine high drive and low cutoff frequency to create a lo-fi effect on only a few sounds, while the rest of the sounds remained clear and pristine.
• Each note can be routed to different Insert Effects, or have separate FX Send amounts. For instance, you can send a snare sound through a dedicated compressor.
Note: You can use Drum Kits only in Programs whose Oscillator Mode is set to Drums.

Drum Program
This is a selectable function within the Basic Oscillator Settings page, under the Oscillator Mode heading. Drums mode is a special variation of Single mode, and uses a Drum Kit (as created in Global mode) instead of Multisamples.
See also Single Program and Double Program.

Drum Track Function : feature
The Drum Track function makes it easy to play the M3’s high-quality drum programs using a wide variety of Drum Track patterns. It provides a convenient way for you to hear Drum Track patterns while you try playing various phrases on a program or combination, or working out the outline of your song. Then when you’ve come up with some ideas, you can use the Auto Song Setup function to immediately start recording in Sequencer mode. Regarding the Drum Track patterns, you can use preset patterns that cover a wide range of musical styles, as well as user patterns that you yourself created.

Drum Track On/Off Switch
Located at the far bottom left of the M3-Module directly under the Drum Track label. This key turns the Drum Track function on or off.

Drum Track Patterns : definition
A sequence of drum patterns selectable either from the extensive built in set of Drum Patterns or a User Created Drum Pattern. The selected Drum Pattern can be initiated by pressing the DRUM TRACK ON/OFF button located to the left of the main display. See also Drum Track Function

Drum Track Program : defintion
The Program selected to play the Drum Track Patterns. See also Drum Track Function

Dynamic MIDI : definition
Dynamic MIDI MIDI is a function that uses the M3’s or MIDI control messages to control specific functions of the KARMA function. For example, this enables you to use the joystick to play strummed guitar chords, use a foot switch to control the Run/Mute status of a KARMA module, or use the damper pedal to latch a KARMA module. You’ll be able to control them in realtime while you play.

Dynamic Modulation : description
Dynamic modulation (Dmod) lets you use MIDI messages or the M3’s controllers to modulate specific effect parameters in real-time. See DMod for details.


Edit : definition
Broadly the word Edit refers to any action which produces a change in a parameter, setting, or variable. This broad term also fits well with the M3, which has editable features in virtually every function that you can access. In the macro sense of the word, Edit is applied here with reference to the large categories of functions within the M3. They are Program, Combination, Song, Sampling, and Drum Kit editing.

Edit Buffer : definition
When you select a program in Prog P0: Play, or a combination in Combi P0: Play, the program or combination data is called into the M3’s edit buffer. When you then use the various Program or Combination pages or each pages to edit the parameters, your changes will affect the data in the edit buffer. If you wish to save this modified data into internal memory, you must perform the Write operation. If you select another program or combination, without writing, the data of the newly selected program or combination will be called into the edit buffer, and your previous changes will be lost.

Edit Cell : definition
The word 'cell' is interchangeable with 'parameter', 'variable', and 'value', when referencing anything on the main display that can be changed. When you touch a parameter on the display, the parameter or parameter value will usually be highlighted (displayed in inverse video). This is called the edit cell, and the highlighted item will be subject to editing. Editing the selected cell can be accomplished by using one or more of the Value Controllers.

Edit Wave Media Mode : description
See Media Mode Edit Wave for details.

EDS : definition
The new “EDS” (Enhanced Definition Synthesis) sound generation system is based on PCM sources refined using Korg’s proprietary voicing technology, and delivers rich and vivid sounds.

Effects : description
Effects are class of inserts that can be put into the signal chain to control and vary the sound output. For effects processing, the M3 provides five insert effects, two master effects, and one total effect, together with a mixer section that controls the routing of these effects. All of these are stereo in/out. Specific parameters of these effects can also be controlled in real time from the M3’s controllers or via MIDI messages using Dynamic Modulation (Dmod), by MIDI/Tempo Sync, or by using a common LFO to apply synchronized change to differing modulation effects. There are 10 broad categories of Effects, they are;
•Dynamics: 000…005, Effects which control volume, such as compressors, limiter, and gates
•EQ/Filter: 006…017, Effects which control frequency content, such as EQ, multi-mode filter, exciter, and wah.
•Overdrive/Amp/Mic: 018…025, Overdrive and amp modeling effects such as guitar/bass amps and mics.
•Chorus/Flanger/Phaser: 026…039, Pitch and phase modulation effects such as chorus and flanger.
•Modulation/Pitch Shift: 040…054, Other modulation effects such as tremolo and rotary speaker, and pitch shifters.
•Delay: 055…069 Delays
•Reverb/ER: 070…076 Reverb and early reflections
•Mono-Mono Serial: 077…108, Mono & Mono chain effects that internally connect two mono effects in series.
•Mono//Mono Parallel: 109…153, Mono & Mono parallel effects that allow two mono effects to be applied to L and R independently.
•Double Size: 154…170, Double size effects.

Effect Type : defintion
See Effects for details

EG/Envelope Generator : definition
An envelope creates a modulation signal by moving from one level to another over a specified time, and then moving to another level over another period of time, and so on. The Program includes three EGs, for Pitch, Filter, and Amp. These produce time-varying changes in pitch, tone, and volume respectively. They can also be used to modulate a number of other Program parameters via AMS.

EQ : description, function
An EQ (Equalizer) enables the adjustment of frequency ranges, usually used to help reduce or enhance frequencies of a specific track/program in order to get a better overall mix.
On the M3 the user can adjust a mid-sweepable three-band EQ in the Prog P0: Play– Main page. This EQ will affect both oscillator 1 and oscillator 2.

Erase Control Data : command
This command erases data such as control changes, aftertouch, pitch bend, or tempo in the specified range.

Error Message : description
The M3 will communicate problems or 'errors' to the user in plain text on the main display. A comprehensive list of Error Messages is available in the Operations Guide.

Event Edit : command
Enables the user to edit the individual events of MIDI data. This command is also available when editing patterns.

Erase Measure : command
This command erases the specified type(s) of musical data from the specified range of measures. The Erase Measure command can also be used to remove only a specific type of data. Unlike the Delete Measure command, executing the Erase Measure command does not cause the subsequent measures of musical data to be moved forward.

Erase Pattern : command
This command erases the data from the selected pattern.

Erase Track : command
This command erases the data from the specified track. It is not possible to erase the master
track by itself.

EXB-FW : definition, hardware
The EXB-FW is an expansion card that provides the M3 with two FW ports.

EXB-M256 : definition, hardware
The EXB-M256 is a memory board with 256 MB (megabytes) of capacity. In Sampling mode, you’ll be able to select sample memory bank RAM2. Refer to the above table for the sampling times when using bank RAM2. In addition, you’ll be able to load sample files of various formats (KORG, WAVE, AIFF, AKAI (S1000/S3000), SoundFont 2.0), or load optional PCM expansion USB memory data. See also Sampling Ram

EXB-Radius : definition, hardware
An internal RADIAS analog modeling synthesizer sound generator board. This board is a separate add on module.

Exclusive Event Recording
Exclusive messages received from an external MIDI device or the parameter changes produced when you edit a MIDI track parameter or effect parameter can be realtime-recorded on any MIDI track. During playback, the exclusive messages you recorded will control the track parameters and effect parameters of the song, and can be sent to external MIDI devices.

Exclusive Groups : description
This is accessible in the Drum Kit-Voice mixer page. It enables one sound to cut off another sound. For example, let’s say that you’ve assigned an open hi-hat and a closed hi-hat to the same exclusive group:
• Play the open hi-hat sound.
• While it’s still ringing, play the closed hi-hat.
• The open hi-hat sound will be cut off–simulating the action of a physical hi-hat.

Exclusive Solo : description
Normally, the Solo function operates in “Exclusive Solo off” mode, where you can solo more than one track at a time (as in the example above). In contrast, “Exclusive Solo on” mode allows only one track/channel to be soloed at a time, making it easy to switch between soloed tracks. Use the Exclusive Solo menu command to specify how the Solo function will operate.

Exit Switch : physical controller
Located directly below the Value Dial is a grouping of two keys, the EXIT and the PAGE SELECT switches.
If you’re in a page other than page 0 (e.g., Prog P0: Play) of each mode, pressing the EXIT switch will take you to page 0.
This switch makes it easy to return to the main page of
the current mode:
• Press it once to go to the previously-selected tab on the main P0 page.
• Press it again to go to the first tab on the main P0 page (such as the main Program Play page). If you had previously selected a parameter on this page, that parameter will be selected.
• Press it a third time to select the main parameter on the P0 page, such as the Program name in Program mode.
Wherever you are in Program, Combination, or Sequencer modes, pressing EXIT three times (or fewer) will take you back to Program/Combination/Song Select, where you can immediately use the numeric keys or q/u switches to select a Program, Combination, or Song.
When a dialog box is open, this switch cancels the settings made in the dialog box and closes the dialog box, just like pressing the Cancel button. If a popup menu or menu is open, pressing EXIT closes the menu.

External Control : definition
The M3’s external control capability lets you use the control surface switches 1–8, sliders 1–8, and pads 1–8 to control external MIDI devices. Each of these controllers can transmit a specified MIDI control change on the specified MIDI channel. There are 128 sets of control assignments. With the factory settings, the control sets contain preloaded data. For example, there are setups that let you control soft synthesizers such as the KORG Legacy Collection, and other setups that let you control the level and pan of a DAW (Digital Audio Workstation) program in realtime.
Note: See the “M3 External Setups” (PDF) for details on the control change (CC#) settings assigned by the preloaded external control templates and the application settings to which they correspond.

EX-USB-PCM Media Mode : description
See Media Mode EX-USB-PCM for details.


FAT : definition
File Allocation Table or FAT is a computer file system architecture originally purchased by Bill Gates and then developed by Bill Gates and Marc McDonald during 1976–1977.[1][2] It is the primary file system for various operating systems including DR-DOS, OpenDOS, FreeDOS, MS-DOS, OS/2 (v1.1) and Microsoft Windows (up to Windows Me). For floppy disks (FAT12 and FAT16 without long filename support) it has been standardized as ECMA-107[3] and ISO/IEC 9293.[4][5] The use of long filenames with FAT is patented in part.
The FAT file system is relatively straightforward and is supported by virtually all existing operating systems for personal computers. This makes it an ideal format for solid-state memory cards and a convenient way to share data between operating systems.

The M3 supports both FAT 16 and FAT 32. If you are formatting a USB device connected to the M3 then select FAT 32 if the storage size is 4GB or larger. See also Format, USB, and MediaMode.

FF/REW Speed : command
This allows you to set the speed at which fast-forward or rewind will occur when you press the FF switch or REW switch.

File types that can be saved/loaded : description
For a list of File types that can be saved to media see Saving Data. For a list of File types that can be loaded from media see Media Mode Load.

Filter : definition
The filters allows you to diminish or emphasize specified frequency areas of the sound. The tone of the sound will depend significantly on the filter settings. filter settings include the routing, type, and resonance.

Filter - Resonance : definition
Resonance emphasizes the frequencies around the cutoff frequency. When this is set to 0, there is no emphasis, and frequencies beyond the cutoff will simply diminish
smoothly. At medium settings, the resonance will alter the timbre of the filter, making it sound more nasal, or more extreme. At very high settings, the resonance can be heard as a separate, whistling pitch. To make the resonance track the keyboard pitch, please
see "Key Follow.”

Filter Routing : function
Each oscillator has two filters, Filter A and Filter B. The Filter Routing parameter controls whether one or both of the filters are used, and if both are used, it controls how they are connected to each other. There are four different routings available, they are: Single, Serial, Parallel, and 24dB(4Pole).

Finalized : definition
Refers to the finished state of a user written CD. A finalized CD is one that can be played back in CD players.

Format : description
Newly purchased media or media that has been used by another device cannot be used “as is;” you must format the media before you can use it with the M3.
Note: When creating audio CDs, you don’t need to format the CD-R/RW media.

Front Panel : description
The generic name given to the surface of the M3-Module, keybed, and lefthand controllers, which provides the user with the controls, switches, sliders, keys and display, necessary to interact with the M3.

Filter Routing - Single : definition
The Single routing uses only Filter A as a single 2-pole, 12dB/octave filter (6dB for Band Pass and Band Reject).

Filter Routing - Serial : definition
The Serial routing uses both Filter A and Filter B. The oscillator first goes through Filter A, and then the output of Filter A is processed through Filter B.

Filter Routing - Parallel : definition
Parallel also uses both Filter A and Filter B. The oscillator feeds both filters directly, and the outputs of the two filters are then summed together.

Filter Routing - 24dB(4Pole) : definition
The 24dB(4Pole) routing merges both filters to create a single 4-pole, 24dB/octave filter (12dB for Band Pass and Band Reject). In comparison to Single, this option produces a sharper roll-off beyond the cutoff frequency, as well as a slightly more delicate resonance. Many classic analog synths used this general type of filter.

Filter Types : definition
This selects the parts of the sound which will be affected by the filter, as described below. With the Serial and Parallel routings, you can independently set the types for Filter A and Filter B. The filters will produce very different results depending on the selected filter type. The four different Filter Types are; Low Pass (12dB/oct), High Pass (12dB/oct), Band Pass (6dB/oct), Band Reject (6dB/oct)

Foot Pedal : physical controller
This lets you use a continuous controller pedal, such as the Korg EXP-2 foot controller or Korg XVP-10 EXP/VOL pedal, as an assignable controller. Like the Assignable Foot Switch, described below, the Foot Pedal can be used for many different functions, including: Master Volume, Channel Volume, Pan, or Expression, Assignable sound modulation, As several different
AMS or Dmod sources, Effects Send level control, Operate various M3-M, KYBD-61/73/88 controls. (VALUE slider, realtime control sliders, KARMA sliders/switches, Joystick, Ribbon controller, SW1/SW2, etc.)

Foot Switch : physical controller
This lets you use a simple footswitch, such as the Korg PS-1, as an assignable controller. The footswitch can perform a wide variety of functions, such as: An assignable source for modulating sounds and effects, Portamento on/off, Program select up or down, Sequencer start/stop or punch in/out, Tap Tempo, KARMA on/off, Latch on/off, or Scene select, Switch the Drum Track on/off, Switch X–Y mode or X–Y motion on/off, Operate various M3 controls (VALUE slider, pads, realtime control sliders, KARMA sliders/switches, joystick, ribbon controller, SW1/SW2, etc.)

Filter Type - Low Pass (12dB/oct) : definition
This cuts out the parts of the sound which are higher than the cutoff frequency. Low Pass is the most common type of filter, and is used to make bright timbres sound darker.

Filter Type - High Pass (12dB/oct) : definition
This cuts out the parts of the sound which are lower than the cutoff frequency. You can use this to make timbres sound thinner or more buzzy.

Filter Type - Band Pass (6dB/oct) : definition
This cuts out all parts of the sound, both highs and lows, except for the region around the cutoff frequency. Since this filter cuts out both high and low frequencies, its effect can change dramatically depending on the cutoff setting and the oscillator’s multisample. With low resonance settings, you can use the Band Pass filter to create telephone or vintage phonograph
sounds. With higher resonance settings, it can create buzzy or nasal timbres.

Filter Type - Band Reject (6dB/oct) : definition
This filter type–also called a notch filter–cuts only the parts of the sound directly around the cutoff frequency. Try modulating the cutoff with an LFO to create phaser-like effects.


GE/Generated Effect : definition
A Generated Effect (GE) is the name for a single KARMA algorithmic effect. Other keyboards might refer to this as an arp, arpeggio, pattern, phrase, etc. The M3 can have up to 4 GEs used in a Combi or Song, and a single GE used in a Program. A GE exists inside a Module, which contains the key zone, triggering methods, and other non-GE parameters that determine how it is used within a particular Combi, Song, or Program.

GE RTP/Generated Effect real time parameters : definition
GE RTP are assignable to KARMA Sliders and Switches. Any given GE contains over 200 internal parameters or settings, 32 of these are called GE RTPs which are preselected as the most suitable for any particular type of GE.

These parameters determine how notes from the keyboard cause note data to be developed by KARMA and how velocity, rhythm and other midi data will be controlled to generate musical phrases or patterns by KARMA.

The 32 GE RTP settings may be edited and can be assigned to the hardware controllers such as the KARMA sliders or KARMA Switches to allow real time control of GE parameters while playing the keyboard.

In such a manner it is possible, for example when using a GE from the Drum/Percussion category to control the pattern swing or variation by assigning the appropriate GE RTC parameters to KARMA sliders 1 and 2. GE RTPs can be assigned with assignments for Perf RTP. See also Perf RTP.

Get from Track : command
This command takes musical data from a MIDI track and loads it into the specified

Global Midi channel : definition
In the Global P1: MIDI– MIDI Basic page and the MIDI Routing page, you can make settings for the global MIDI channel, the local on/off setting, MIDI clock, MIDI routing, and MIDI filtering. You can also use a menu command in this page to transmit MIDI exclusive data dumps.

Global:Menu Command : description
The drop down menu available when Global Mode has been entered. To activate the menu simply tap the menu label located in the top right of the screen. The following commands are available;
Write Global Setting
Load/PreLoad Demo Data
Set Prog User-Bank Type
Change All Bank References
Touch Panel Calibration
Half Damper Calibration
Pad Calibration
After Touch Calibration
Update System Software

Global Mode : physical controller
This Mode allows the user to create overall settings for the M3 such as, Master Tune, Global MIDI channel. Create user Drum Kits and user Scales. Create Drum Kits using ROM or RAM drumsamples. Rename Programs, combination, and KARMA GE categories. Set the functions of assignable pedals and switches. Transmit MIDI data dumps.

GM : definition
GM is short for General Midi. General MIDI or GM is a standardized specification for music synthesizers that respond to MIDI messages. GM was developed by the MIDI Manufacturers Association (MMA) and the Japan MIDI Standards Committee (JMSC) and first published in 1991. The official specification is available in English from the MMA, bound together with the MIDI 1.0 specification, and in Japanese from the Association of Musical Electronic Industry (AMEI).

GM imposes several requirements beyond the more abstract MIDI 1.0 specification. While MIDI 1.0 by itself provides a protocol which ensures that different instruments can interoperate at a fundamental level (e.g. that pressing keys on a MIDI keyboard will cause an attached MIDI sound module to play musical notes), GM goes further in two ways: it requires that all GM-compatible synthesizers meet a certain minimal set of features, such as being able to play at least 24 notes simultaneously (polyphony), and it attaches specific interpretations to many parameters and control messages which were left under-specified in the MIDI 1.0 spec, such as defining instrument sounds for each of the 128 possible program numbers.
GM synthesizers are required to be able to:
• Allow 24 voices to be active simultaneously (including at least 16 melodic and 8 percussive voices).
• Respond to note velocity.
• Support all 16 channels simultaneously (with channel 10 reserved for percussion).
• Support polyphony (multiple simultaneous notes) on each channel.

GM Initialize : command
This command transmits a GM System On message to the Sequencer mode, resetting all MIDI tracks to the GM settings.

Grid : description
Grid overlays a grid on the waveform display to indicate the [#Tempo] tempo BPM. This helps you make loop settings that match the tempo. You can also view the grid in the P1: Sample Edit page, and use the grid to edit the waveform to match the tempo.


Half Damper Calibration : command
If a damper pedal that supports half damper (the DS–1H option) is connected to the DAMPER jack, here’s how you can adjust the sensitivity if the damper effect is not applied appropriately. See also Damper Pedal, and Global Menu Command

Hard Split :
An abrupt Program change between two Key Zones. See also Sloped Split.

High Pass Filter : description
See Filter Type - High Pass (12dB/oct) for further information


IFX : defintion
Insert Effects (IFX 1–5) have a stereo input and a stereo output. If you set the Wet/Dry parameter to Dry (no effect), the input signal will be passed through, in stereo, without being processed by the effect. If you select Wet (effect applied), the processed signal will be output in one of the following ways:
• Mono In - Mono Out
• Mono In - Stereo Out
• Stereo In - Stereo Out
See also MFX Master effects, and TFX Total effects.

Increment and Decrement Switches : physical controllers
Located between the Value Slider and the main display are two keys, one with an up (^) arrow inscribed on it, and the other with a down (v) arrow on it, these are the Increment (^) and Decrement (v) switches. These are used to increase or decrease the parameter value by individual steps. They’re convenient for making fine adjustments to parameters that have been selected on the main display. These two switches comprise one of four available ways to adjust selected parameters, see Value Controller for more information.

Index Multisample
Each zone in a multisample is called an Index. For example on the 61 note keyboard, a multisample could be divided into six zones of one octave (12 keys) each. Each of these zones is referred to as an Index. You will assign a sample to each of these indexes.

Insert Measure : command
This command inserts the specified number of measures into the specified track. When you execute the Insert Measure command, the musical data following the insert location will be moved backward.

Intensity : definition
A parameter that sets the degree (speed, depth, amount etc.) to which AMS will control modulation.

Internal Memory : definition
System (M3), and User accessible memory, where programs, combinations, Songs and Patterns are written, copied, and cut to. User memory can be loaded into from external media, and saved to external media.

In Track Sampling : definition
One type of sampling possible employing the M3 Open Sampling System. This type of sampling is conducted in sequencer mode. It is the action of sampling audio input which is playing along with song playback by the M3 sequencer. Note data is created automatically in the track during In Track Sampling in such a manner that the sampled sound plays at the correct time during subsequent sequencer playback. (Manual Page 126)


Joystick : physical controller
Located on the left side of the keybed the joystick occupies the same area as the Ribbon Strip and two assignable switches SW1 and SW2. The Joystick has four Controller Names that correspond to the four cardinal directions of travel {Controller Name, movement direction, default setting}; {JS-X, left, pitchbend down} {JS+X, right, pitchbend up} {JS+Y, up, vibrato} {JS-Y, down, Filter LFO -wah-}


KARMA stands for Kay Algorithmic Realtime Music Architecture, named after its inventor, Stephen Kay. The KARMA function generates MIDI data, using many different algorithms seamlessly integrated to provide a powerful “music generation engine.” Based on the notes and chords you play, KARMA generates phrases and patterns in real-time, generating not just notes but MIDI control data as well. The KARMA architecture allows the various algorithms to be reconfigured and varied in realtime, as you play them. See the following for information regarding KARMA operations and parameters;
KARMA Linking
KARMA Real-Time Controls
KARMA Function Settings

KARMA Real-Time Controls
These are front panel controls used to control the KARMA function. The settings of these controls can be saved independently for each Program, Combination, and Song. The controls are as follows;
KARMA On/Off Switch
KARMA Latch Switch
KARMA Module Control Switch
KARMA Sliders and Switches
KARMA Scene Switches 1-8
KARMA Pad Mode Switch
KARMA Chord Assign Switch

KARMA Chord Assign Switch : physical controller
Located immediately to the left of the Pads. This switch allows the user to assign single notes and chords to the pads in three different ways.
Selecting the notes first
1. Play a single note, or a chord of up to 8 notes.
2. Press the CHORD ASSIGN switch.
3. Press the pad to which you’d like to assign the notes.

KARMA Function Settings : description
The various parameters that are user controlled within the various KARMA Function Setting dialogs. Available Function settings vary according to what Mode the M3 is in;
KARMA Function Settings Program Mode

KARMA Function Settings Program Mode
In Program mode you can use only one KARMA module (module A). KARMA function settings for a program are made in the various pages of Prog P7: KARMA.
Following is a list of the KARMA Function Settings for Program Mode;
KARMA Key Zones
KARMA On/Off Switch
Copy KARMA Module
KARMA Key Zones
KARMA Midi Filter

KARMA GE Select : description
This is used to select the GE used by the KARMA module. Access to the GE parameters is on page 'Prog P7–1: KARMA1– GE Setup'. Press “Load GE Opt” (Load GE Options) to access
the dialog box.

KARMA Key Zones : definition
The zone of keys that will trigger the KARMA function. For example you might make settings so that the keys at the bottom of the keyboard will trigger phrases, and keys above this range can be played normally. Keys you press and note data received from MIDI IN, USB B that falls within this range will be sent to the KARMA module. See also Zones, and KARMA Function Settings.

KARMA Latch Switch : physical controller
Located at the bottom left of the M3-Module to the left of the KARMA Module Control switch. If this is on, the phrase or pattern will continue playing even after you remove your hand from the keyboard or pads 1–8.

KARMA Linking : definition
Linking KARMA to Programs and Combinations. You can specify whether the KARMA settings written to a Program or Combination will also be selected when you select that program or combination, or whether the KARMA settings will not change when you switch the Program or Combination.

KARMA Module Control Switch : physical controller
Located near the bottom right side of the M3-Module to the Left of a vertical row of five LEDs. In Combination or Sequencer mode, this selects the module that will be controlled by the KARMA sliders1–8, KARMA switch (SWITCHES) 1–8, and KARMA SCENE 1–8 switches.

KARMA Module Copy : description
See Copy KARMA Module for details

KARMA Midi Filter : description
Access on page Prog P7–1: KARMA1– MIDI Filter. There are two Headings on the page;
• Receive Midi Filter:
This specifies whether filtering will be applied to the MIDI control data received by the KARMA module. If an item is on (checked), the corresponding data will be received.
• Transmit Midi Filter:
This specifies whether filtering will be applied to the MIDI control data generated by the GE selected for the KARMA module. If an item is on (checked), transmission is enabled.

KARMA On/Off Switch : physical controller
Located at the bottom left of the M3-Module directly under the KARMA emblem. This switches the KARMA function on/off.

KARMA Pad Mode Switch : physical controller
Located immediately to the left of the Pads. The Pad Mode selects either VEL. SENS (velocity sensitive) in which the force at which you strike a pad will affect the loudness of the sound, or VEL. FIXED (velocity fixed) in which the fixed velocity value you specify in the Pads 1–4/5–8 Setup page will always be used.

KARMA Scene Switches 1-8 : physical controller
Located to the bottom left of the M3-Module immediately to the right of the Module Control switch. These switches let you store the settings of sliders 1–8 and KARMA switches 1–8 as eight different “scenes” (KARMA SCENE 1–8). In Combination or Sequencer modes, scenes can store separate settings for each module, and you can use the MODULE CONTROL switch and the Module Control Scene Matrix function to control this.

KARMA Sliders and Switches : physical controller
See also Control Surface for additional information.
When CONTROL ASSIGN is set to KARMA, these control the KARMA module(s) selected by MODULE CONTROL. By operating these controls, you can adjust GE realtime parameters and KARMA module parameters to freely vary the phrases or patterns generated by the KARMA module. (Use “P7: KARMA–GE RTP page, Perf RTP” to specify the parameter that each control will affect.)

Keyboard Track : description
Most acoustic instruments get brighter as you play higher pitches. At its most basic, keyboard tracking re-creates this effect by increasing the cutoff frequency of a lowpass filter as you play higher on the keyboard. Usually, some amount of key tracking is necessary in order to make the timbre consistent across the entire range. The M3 keyboard tracking can also be much more complex, since it allows you to create different rates of change over up to four different parts of the keyboard. See also Keys and Ramps

Keyboard Zones : definition
See Key Zone/Split for details

Key Follow : definition
An effect in which the filter frequency tracks the pitch of the keyboard.

Key Off : description
A parameter available in the P4:Zone/Delay Delay T01-08 page. If this is set to off then the timbre will sound when the note is released. See also Delay Timbre

Keys and Ramps
The keyboard tracking works by creating four ramps, or slopes, between five keys on the keyboard. The bottom and top keys are fixed at the bottom and top of the MIDI range, respectively. You can set the other three keys–named Low Break, Center, and High Break–to be anywhere in between. The four Ramp values control the rate of change between each pair of keys. For instance, if the Low-Center Ramp is set to 0, the value will stay the same between the Low Break key and the Center key. You can think of the resulting shape as being like two folding doors attached to a hinge in the center. At the Center key (the main hinge), the keyboard tracking has no effect. The two folding doors swing out from this center point to create changes in the higher and lower ranges of the keyboard.

Key Zone/Split :
Key Zones or Splits, cause different Programs to sound on different parts of the Keyboard. These can be mixed with Velocity Zones/Switches to create multi layered Key Zones. In addition Zones can be either Hard Split or Sloped. See also Combinations, and Program

KGE files : description
KARMA Generated Effects Files. Dedicated M3 file format containing KARMA User GEs. For details about the structure and format of these files, see page 405 of the M3 Parameter Guide, Media Mode> Files, directories, and icons page.
See also Saving Data

The M3 uses “KKS” (KORG Komponent System), in which the sound module and the keyboard assembly (KYBD-61/73/88) are joined by a detachable mechanism. This lets you mount other sound modules on the keyboard assembly, or mount two sound modules at the same time on the keyboard assembly for flexible system creation. Of course you can detach the sound module from the keyboard assembly and use it as a stand-alone unit. You can also tilt the sound module upward for convenient operation.

KSF files : description
Korg Sample Files. There are four types of structures for these files, for details see page 655 of the M3 Parameter Guide, KSF (Korg Sample Files) files page. KSF can handle a wide array of sample rates from 48000Hz down to 1838Hz. Sampling resolution is at 16 bits.


Latch : definition
Having a specific sound or effect continue playing even after the key has been released. One example of a 'latched' sound is the sustain that occurs when the damper pedal is held in the depressed position and a key is struck and released, in this case the key sound will continue to be heard until it has faded away or until the damper pedal has been released. See also **Latch Switch].

Latch Switch : physical control
Located to the left of the main display near the bottom left corner of the M3-Module, the Latch Switch is the middle button of a set of three buttons. If the LED light is lit on the button then the Latch function is active. When active, a key sound or KARMA effect will continue to play even if the key has been released. See also KARMA Latch Switch.

Layers : definition
Layers occur when multiple Programs are assigned to a Key Zone. The different layers are triggered by velocity differences in the key strokes.

Level Knob : physical controller
Located on the back of the M3-Module, next to the Audio Inputs, they adjusts the input level of the AUDIO INPUT 1 and 2 jacks. After setting the MIC/LINE switch appropriately, use this knob to adjust the gain.

LFO : definition
Low Frequency Oscillators. LFOs can be routed to control, for example, the frequency of an audio oscillator, its phase, stereo panning, filter frequency, or amplification. When routed to control pitch, an LFO creates vibrato. When an LFO modulates amplitude (volume), it creates tremolo. See also LFO Modulation and LFO Speed.

LFO Modulation : description
You can modulate the filter via LFO1, LFO2, and the Common LFO. Among other applications, LFO modulation of the filter can produce the classic “auto-wah” effect.

LFO Speed : description
AMS can be used to vary the LFO speed. This lets you change the LFO speed by operating a controller, or by the EG or Keyboard Track settings.

Load : description
See Media Mode Load for details.

Low Pass Filter : description
See [FTLowPass Filter Type - Low Pass (12dB/oct)] for further information.

Low Boost : description
Part of the Amp Drive circuit, see Boost - Low Boost for details.

Load Drum Track Pattern : command
This command loads a user drum track pattern into a user pattern. If you want to edit a user drum track pattern, you must first load it into a pattern of the song, and then edit it. After editing, you can use Convert to Drum Trk Pattern to save it as a user drum track pattern.

Load Media Mode : description
See Media Mode Load for details

Load/PreLoad Demo Data
This command loads the preloaded data and demo song data into the M3. Before you can load this data, you need to use Memory Protect (Global 0–1b) to turn off (un-check) the protect setting for the type of data you want to load. If you execute this operation with the protect setting checked, the display will indicate “Memory Protected,” and the data cannot be loaded. See also Global Menu Command

Loop : definition
"Loops are short sections of tracks (probably between one and four bars in length), which you believe might work being repeated." A loop is not "any sample, but…specifically a small section of sound that's repeated continuously." Contrast with a one-shot sample. (Duffell 2005, p.14)
"A loop is a sample of a performance that has been edited to repeat seamlessly when the audio file is played end to end." (Hawkins 2004, p. 10)

Loop Settings : description
Loop Settings are accessible on the 'Loop Edit – P2: Loop Edit' page. This page gives the user the abiltiy to set start/stop points, edit the waveform, turn looping on/off, reverse the playback, apply +12dB gain, etc.

Left Mono/Right, Main Audio Outs : physical connector
These are the main stereo outputs; their volume is controlled by the Volume Main slider. All of the factory Programs and Combinations are programmed to play through these outputs. When editing sounds, or when setting up a Song in Sequencer mode, you can access the main outputs by setting Bus Select to L/R. If no cable is connected to the R output, L/MONO will carry a mono summation of the stereo signal. So, if you are connecting to a device which does not have stereo inputs (such as a simple keyboard amplifier), use the L/MONO output.


Make Audio CD Media Mode : description
See Media Mode Make Audio CD for details

Main Display : description, physical controller
The Main Display, (also referred to as the TouchView) is the large LCD screen situated in the center of the M3-Module. This display is a touch sensitive control surface and as such can be used to select controls, parameters, tabs, menu items, etc. Parameters that are selected on the main display can be adjusted by using the Value Controllers. In addition, sliders that are viewable on the display can be directly adjusted by touching them and dragging either up or down.

Manual-Punch-In : command, physical controller
While the song is playing, you can press the SequencerRecWriteSwitch SEQUENCER REC/WRITE switch or a connected pedal switch at the desired location to start or stop recording. With this method, the musical data previously on the track is overwritten by the newly recorded data.

Master Track : definition
One of the available tracks in the Sequencer. The Master Track controls the time signature and tempo of the current Song.

Master Tune :
Enables the user to adjust the overall pitch of the M3. Can be used when playing along with other instruments or when playing with a CD or other Media. Range can be adjusted in steps of 50 cents. (100 cents = 1 semitone)

Media Information Media Mode : description
See Media Mode Media Information for details.

Media Mode : function
This Mode allows the user to save and load data to external devices, format external storage devices, rename files, load a variety of different format files such as Korg, Akai, Soundfont 2.0, AIFF, and WAVE samples. Export RAM samples in AIFF or WAVE formats. Export and Import SMF files. Edit WAVE files. Create and playback CDs from user WAVE files.
Media Mode allows the following file/device operations: Media Mode Load, Media Mode Save, Media Mode Utility, Media Mode Make Audio CD, Media Mode Play Audio CD, Media Mode Edit Wave, Media Mode EX-USB-PCM, Media Mode Media Information, Media Mode Menu Command.

Media Mode Edit Wave : command
Here you can edit a WAVE file that was saved on a storage device (other than CD-R/RW) connected to the USB A connector. You can also edit a large WAVE file down to a size that can fit in the M3’s sample memory (RAM) and then use it in Sampling mode etc.
Note 1: Select the Wave file that you want to edit in either the 0–1: Load, 0–2: Save, 0–3: Utility, or 0–4: Make Audio CD page, and then access this Edit WAVE page.
Note 2: You cannot edit a WAVE file that exceeds 230,400,000 samples (80 minutes at a sampling rate of 48 kHz).
//Note 3: The sample rates of the WAVE files you can edit are the same as the frequencies supported for KSF files.

Media Mode EX-USB-PCM : command
This shows information about the loaded EX-USB-PCM options. The options are:
• Load/unload EX-USB-PCM (remove from RAM memory)
• Verify the EX-USB-PCM loading status
• Verify the RAM memory usage status

Media Mode Load : command
Here you can load the selected file or directory into internal memory or user sample RAM. Use the Open button and Up buttons to select the desired file or directory, and press the Load button to load it. You can also load data by using the Load selected menu command.
The following is a list of file types that can be loaded;
• .PCG file: Programs, Combinations, Drum Kits, Global settings, RADIAS Formant Motions (if the optional EXB-RADIAS is installed), and user Drum Track patterns.
• .SNG file: Song and cue list.
• .KMP file: Korg Multisample Parameter file (KORG format).
• .KSF file: Korg Sample File (KORG format).
• .KSC file: Korg SCript file (KORG format).
• .AIF file: AIFF file.
• .WAV file: WAVE file.
• .SF2 file: Sound Font file.
• .AKAI format Program/Sample file.
• .KCD file: Audio CD track list.
• .MID file: Standard MIDI file (SMF) format.
• .EXL file: MIDI exclusive data.

Media Mode Make Audio CD: command
Here you can use a CD-R/RW drive connected to the USB A connector to create an audio CD. You can create an audio CD from WAVE files that you created by resampling the M3’s sequencer playback etc. and saved on an external USB storage device. Use the Insert button and Cut button to arrange your songs in the audio CD track list, and use the menu command Write to CD to write them to the CD. Audio CDs are created from 44.1 kHz or 48 kHz WAVE files.
Note: WAVE files with a sampling frequency of 48 kHz will automatically be converted to 44.1 kHz when written to an audio CD (Write to CD).
Note: You can play back a WAVE file by selecting (highlighting) it and pressing the SAMPLING START/STOP switch.

Media Mode Media Information : command
The MEDIA screen shows information about the media selected in Media Select (Media 0–1a). Information will include some, or all, of the following parameters;
•Volume Label: The volume label of the media.
•Drive: This is the specified drive.
•Device Type: The type of media.
•Product ID: The vendor ID, product, and product version, etc.
•Format Type: The type of format. If not formatted, this will indicate “Unformatted.”
•Total Size: The capacity of the media (in bytes).
•Free Size: The free capacity of the media (in bytes).
•Write Protect: The write protect status of the media. This will indicate “On” if protected, or “Off” if not protected.
•Supports Removable: This will indicate “Yes” if the media of the selected device can be removed (e.g., Compact Flash, CD-R/RW disc, MO disc, removable hard disk). If the media is fixed, this will be “No.”.

Media Mode Menu Command : command
This gives access to commands that allow the user to lock/unlock, translate, hide, sort, and Load various files (Programs, Songs, Combinations, etc.) into the M3.

Media Mode Play Audio CD : command
You can use a CD-R/RW drive connected to the USB A connector to play back an audio CD.
It is convenient to use this method to verify a CD that you created in the Make Audio CD page.
If you want to monitor the audio, connect the CD-R/RW drive’s audio output jacks (or headphone jack) to the M3’s AUDIO INPUT 1,2 jacks. Alternatively, you can monitor the audio by connecting the CD-R/RW drive’s S/P DIF OUT jack to the M3’s S/P DIF IN jack. The audio CD will play back according to the “0–5b: Audio Input” setting. Playback of the CD can be controlled by the Sequencer switches.
Note 1: If your drive does not have audio output jacks, a headphone jack, or an S/P DIF OUT jack, you won’t be able to monitor the audio.
Note 2: It is not possible to play back an audio CD that has not been finalized.

Media Mode Save : command
Here you can save various data from internal memory or user sample RAM to a variety of media. Use the Open button and Up button to move to the desired directory (i.e., change the current directory), and then select the desired menu command. When you execute a Save operation, the data will be saved in the same level of the disk hierarchy as the files that are displayed.
Note: The M3 contains an internal calendar and clock. When you save a file, the date and time will be assigned automatically. The date and time can be set in Set Data/Time.

Media Mode Utility : command
Here you can rename, copy, or delete the selected media or file, create a new directory, format, and set the date and time. After selecting a media or file, select the desired menu command.

Menu Command Media Mode
See Media Mode Menu Command for details.

MFX : definition
Parameters for Master Effects 1 and 2 are found on page 'PROG P9:MFX/TFX'. The master effects are used to create overall ambience such as reverb. The I/Os of Master Effects MFX1 and MFX2 are stereo-in/stereo-out. Send1 and Send2 determine the send level to the Master Effects. (For Send1 and 2, see “Routing” and “Mixer.”) Master effects will not output the Dry (unprocessed) signal specified in [#Wet/Dry Wet/Dry] (P9– MFX1, 2 page). Only the Wet (processed) signal will be output. See also IFX Insert effects, and TFX Total effects.

MIC/LINE Switch : physical controller.
Located on the back of the M3-Module, next to the audio input jacks. These set the input’s nominal signal level. Set these switches according to the type of device that you’re connecting, and then use the LEVEL knobs to optimize the gain. Use the LINE setting when connecting to mixers, computer audio systems, signal processors, or other synthesizers. Use the MIC setting only when connecting a microphone.

MID files : description
MIDI Files. Standard MIDI file containing MIDI performance data. For details about the structure and format of these files, see page 405 of the M3 Parameter Guide, Media Mode> Files, directories, and icons page.
See also Saving Data, SMF SMF (Standard Midi File)

MIDI : definition
MIDI (Musical Instrument Digital Interface) is an industry-standard protocol defined in 1983 that enables electronic musical instruments, computers, and other equipment to communicate, control, and synchronize with each other.

Midi CC's : definition
Midi Continuous Controllers is data that are sent by the various knobs, sliders, keys, and switches that are found on control board surfaces. In the case of the M3 there 8 sliders and numerous buttons that send Midi CC's. You can also generate and output controller data CC's from within software.

Midi Clock : definition
Use this setting to synchronize the M3’s KARMA function and internal sequencer with an external MIDI device (e.g., sequencer or rhythm machine) and computer.
Internal: The KARMA function and the internal sequencer will operate according to the internal clock. Select the Internal setting when using the M3 by itself, or when you want the M3 to be the master (controlling device) so that another connected external MIDI device will synchronize to the MIDI Clock messages transmitted from the M3.
External MIDI: The KARMA function and internal sequencer will operate in synchronization with MIDI Clock messages from an external MIDI device connected to the MIDI IN connector.

Midi Filtering : description
See Midi Routing for details.

Midi Routing : description
Available on the Global P1 page (Midi, Midi Routing) Menu 1-2. From this page the user can make MIDI routing and filtering settings for the entire M3. See the Parameters guide for details.

Mixer : definition, physical controller
The Mixer has 16 available tracks which are displayed in two banks of 8 tracks each. Each track controls volume, pan, and Program assignments. The Control Surface, located to the right of the display can also control the Mixer, in real time. The Mixer function for the physical sliders is initiated by pressing the Mixer Button, located to the right of the sliders. Each track in the mixer can be assigned a Timbre.

Mode : definition
The M3 has six modes of operation. Program Mode, Combi or Combination Mode, Sequencer Mode, Sampling Mode, Global Mode, and Media Mode. Each Mode is accessible through a dedicated Mode switch located on the panel to the right of the touch display.

Modify Velocity : command
This command modifies the velocity values of notes in the specified area so that they will change over time according to a selected curve.

Module Control Scene Matrix : description
Here you can conveniently view and edit the selected Scenes for each of the five Module Control layers at the same time. You can also set a Scene Change Quantize Window that controls a time interval for when the scene changes will occur, and view information about upcoming scene changes. There is a row for each Module, with the top row corresponding to the Master setting. Each row has eight buttons corresponding to the eight front panel KARMA Scene Switches 1-8. Therefore, you can select any scene in any layer without changing the MODULE CONTROL switch setting. The grid shows an overview of which Scene is selected in any of the layers at any given time.

Module :
A KARMA Module contains a GE (Generated Effect). Whereas the GE determines the musical phrase and most aspects of the notes and CCs generated, the Module is a sort of "wrapper" around the GE which specifies additional parameters not contained in the GE, such as Key Zone, Triggering methods, Transpose and more. There are 4 KARMA Modules in a Combi or Song, and a single Module in Program Mode.

Module Control Switch KARMA : physical controller
See KARMA Module Control Switch for details.

Move Measure : command
This command moves the specified measures of performance data to another measure. When you execute the Move Measure command, the performance data following the move-source measures will move forward by the corresponding number of measures, and the performance data following the move-destination will move backward (i.e., later in the song) by the same number of measures.

Multisample :
Where a sample is a recording of a single pitch source, a Multisample is a collection of similarly voiced samples, used to create the same type of sound - piano, bass, guitar, strings, organ - across the entire keyboard, as the basis of a program. See also Sample.


Number Pad COMPARE Switch : physical controller
This key is one of a set of keys which comprise the Number Pad Switch Group.
Use this switch to compare the sound of the Program or Combination that you are currently editing with the saved, un-edited version of the sound. You can also use this switch to make “before and after” comparisons when recording or editing in Sequencer mode.

Number Pad ENTER Switch : physical controller
Located in the group of keys called the Number Pad Switch Group.
ENTER has a few special functions when it is pressed in combination with other switches. Whenever a parameter on the display lets you enter a musical note (such as G4 or C#2), or a velocity level, you can enter the note or velocity directly by holding down ENTER while playing a note on the keyboard. (This is not available in menu command dialog boxes.)
By holding down the ENTER switch while you press a numeric key (0–9), you can select up to ten menu commands from the current page.
In Program and Combination modes, you can hold down the ENTER switch and press the SEQUENCER REC/WRITE switch to use the Auto Song Setup function. This imports the current Program or Combination into Sequencer mode for quick and easy recording.
While a dialog box is displayed, the ENTER switch corresponds to the OK button. (The EXIT switch corresponds to the Cancel button.)
In Sequencer mode, you can hold down the ENTER switch and press the LOCATE switch to operate the menu command Set Location.

Number Pad Switch Group : physical controller
Located immediately to the right of the Value Dial the Number Pad consists of the switches numbered 0-9, a (.), a (-), an ENTER, and a COMPARE switch. These switches are convenient when you know the exact value that you want to enter. Use the 0–9, –, and decimal (.) switches to enter the value, and then press the ENTER switch to confirm the entry. The – switch inverts the sign (+/–) of the parameter value; the decimal (.) switch inserts a decimal, for entering fractional values.


On/Off Switch KARMA : physical controller
See KARMA On/Off Switch for details.

On/Off Switch Drum Track : physical controller
See **Drum Track On/Off Switch
for details.

Oscillator : definition
An oscillator is a repeating waveform with a fundamental frequency and peak amplitude and it forms the basis of most popular synthesis techniques today. Oscillators are generally controlled by a keyboard synthesiser or MIDI protocol device. A key press will result in a MIDI note value which will be converted to a frequency value (Hz) that the oscillator will accept as its input, and the waveform period will repeat accordingly to the specified frequency. From here, the sound can be processed or manipulated in a variety of ways in the synthesizer or program to enrich or modify the sound further. The M3 has two oscillators, OSC1 and OSC2.

Oscillator Velocity Zones : description
Unless you’re in Drum mode, each Oscillator has four velocity zones, named MS1 (High) through MS4 (Low). This means that the Program can play different Multisamples, depending on how hard you play. Each of these zones has separate settings for Level, Start Offset, and so on. Also, each of the zones can fade into the next, to create smooth velocity transitions. Zones can even be layered together, two at a time.


Page Select Switch : physical controller
Press this switch when you want to move to another page. When you press this switch, a list of the pages within the mode will appear in the display. Press the button of the desired page. Alternatively, you can move to a page by holding down this button and pressing a Number Pad 0-9 key.

Pad Calibration : command
This is a menu selection found in the Global: Menu Command
This allows the user to adjusts/calibrate the velocity sensitivity of the pads.

Pads - Drum & Chord Pads : physical controller
There are eight pads located immediately below the main display. These eight velocity-sensitive trigger pads look like drum machine pads, and playing drum sounds is certainly one use for them. However, they can also play up to eight-note chords on any sound–not just drums. The pads even remember the velocities of the individual notes within the chord, as well as the notes themselves. See also Pad Calibration

Pan : definition, command
The Pan control, located in the Mixer, controls the left/right placement of timbres within the stereo field of a song.

Pattern : definition
There are two types of patterns: preset patterns and user patterns.

Pattern Parameter : command
This command specifies the number of measures and the time signature of the selected pattern.

PCG files : description
Program Combi Global Files. Dedicated M3 file format containing programs, combinations, drum kits, global settings, RADIAS formant motions, and drum track patterns. For details about the structure and format of these files, see page 405 of the M3 Parameter Guide, Media Mode> Files, directories, and icons page.
See also Saving Data

Pedals : physical controllers
The Korg M3 can connect to three Foot control Pedals simultaneously. They are, a Damper or Half Damper pedal. An assignable Foot Switch, and an assignable Foot Pedal.

Performance Real-Time Parameters : definition
Perf RTPs are also known as the KARMA Module Parameters that have been assigned to control surfaces switches and sliders. If KARMA module parameters (Perf RTP) are assigned to the KARMA sliders and KARMA switches, you’ll be able to control them in realtime to modify the phrase or pattern while you play. GE Real-Time Parameters can also be assigned. See also GE RTP.

Pitch : definition
Pitch represents the perceived fundamental frequency of a sound. It is one of the three major auditory attributes of sounds along with loudness and timbre.

Play Audio CD Media Mode
See Media Mode Play Audio CD for details.

Preset Patterns : definition
Patterns suitable for drum tracks are preset in internal memory, and can be selected for any song.

Program :
Programs are the basic sounds of the M3. You can play them by themselves, layer them together in Combinations, or play a different Program on each of the 16 MIDI tracks, either from the internal sequencer or from external computer-based sequencers.

Program Mode : function
When in Program Mode you can select and play Programs, utilize one KARMA module to generate phrases, play back Drum Track patterns while performing, sample external audio sources while performing, and make adjustments to oscillators, filters, amps, EGs, LFOs, effects, KARMA, X–Y control, etc.

Punch-In : definition
A term used in the music recording industry to indicate the point that a recording starts. Usually used in conjunction with the playback of other tracks, and may be used to re-record a section. On the M3 there are two different Punch-In modes, Manual-Punch-In and Auto-Punch-In. See also Punch-Out.

Punch-Out : definition
A term used in the music recording industry to indicate that recording has stopped. This is used in conjunction with the playback of other tracks. The Punch-Out does not always stop the playhead from continuing to play across the other tracks, it does, however halt any new overdub recording for the track area where the Punch-Out has occurred.

Put to Track : command
This command places a pattern into a track. Unlike the Copy to Track, this command only places the pattern number in the song, so that when playback reaches that point, the pattern will be recalled. The musical data of the pattern will not actually exist in the track.


Quantization : definition;
In digital music processing technology, quantization is the process of aligning a set of musical notes to a precise setting. This results in notes being set on beats and on exact fractions of beats. The most frequent application of quantization in this context lies within MIDI application software or hardware. MIDI sequencers typically include quantization in their manifest of edit commands.

Quantize : command
This command corrects the timing of MIDI data of the type you specify (note data, controlchange, aftertouch, pitch bend, program change, etc.) in the track.You can also adjust for swing.


RAM : definition
General computing term referring to Random Access Memory.

RAM1 : definition
Built in RAM used for sampling or loading sounds. RAM1 has 64 Mbytes (installed as standard) which allows up to approximately 11 minutes 39 seconds of mono sampling or approximately 5 minutes 49 seconds of stereo sampling. 512 bytes are used by the system. A continuous sample across RAM1 and RAM2 is not possible. See also RAM2

RAM2 : definition
Expansion RAM board used for sampling or loading sounds. RAM2 has 256 Mbytes (when the EXB-M256 is installed) which allows up to approximately 46 minutes 36 seconds of mono sampling or approximately 23 minutes 18 seconds of stereo sampling. A continuous sample across RAM1 and RAM2 is not possible. See also RAM1

Record-Ready Mode : definition
In Sequencer mode, pressing the SEQUENCER REC/WRITE switch will enter record-ready mode. Once you’re in record-ready mode (shown by the switch’s lit LED), you can begin recording by pressing the SEQUENCER START/STOP switch. In Program and Combination modes, you can hold down the ENTER switch and press the SEQUENCER REC/WRITE switch to use the Auto Song Setup function. This imports the current Program or Combination into Sequencer mode for quick and easy recording.

Repeat Measure : command
This command repeatedly inserts the specified measures for the specified number of times. When you execute the Repeat Measure command, the measures will be inserted following the measure specified by To End of Measure, and musical data following the inserted data will be moved backward.

Resampling : definition
Resampling is the process of sampling a Song to create a stereo two-channel WAVE file on a USB storage device (such as a commercially available hard disk). You can record a completed Song to a stereo WAVE file, and then burn that WAVE file to an audio CD using the USB CD-R/RW drive (commercially available). See also Saving Data for other Save methods.

Reset Controls : physical controller
The front-panel RESET CONTROLS switch lets you recall and reset the stored settings for any slider, or switch on the control surface.

Resonance : description
Resonance is the vibration of certain Frequencies, at Amplitudes higher than the others around them, due to the shapes the sound is traveling through. In physical instruments, the shape of the vibrating parts (the strings, wind pipe, drum head, etc.) creates a natural resonance, as does the oscillating feedback from a loud guitar amp back onto the strings.
Many filters are equipped with resonance controllers, which raise the amplitude of the frequencies around the cutoff point, sharpening the filter's cutoff slope. Small amounts of resonance can enrich any sound, but a lot will produce a sharp, but highly useful noise. See also Filter - Resonance.

Ribbon Strip : physical controller
Located to the left of the keybed, the Ribbon Strip occupies the same area as the Joystick and two assignable switches SW1 and SW2. The Ribbon Strip is controlled by sliding a finger left or right on the strip. Normally the Ribbon is used to control pitch, volume or filter etc.

RPPR : definition
Realtime Pattern Play/Recording function. RPPR lets you assign patterns to individual keys, and then playback patterns simply by pressing individual notes on the keyboard. This performance can be recorded in real-time.

RTC Model : definition
Real Time Control Model. The internally specified set of more then 200 parameters standardised for each category of preset GE.

There are 13 standard models. Examples of models would include ; DP1 - Drum/Perc : BL1-Bass/Lead: MR1-Melodic repeat

Each type of model is characterised by identical assingment of GE realtime parameters GE RTP to specific controllers.

Hence a series of GEs related by RTC Model will share the same physical controllers.

So for example in the case of Model DP-1 Drum/Perc Slider 1 will always control the swing and Slider 2 controls the pattern variation, unless changes are made by edit of the GE RTP

Additional custom RTC models are possible.

The RTC Model Reference in the KARMA2 section of this wiki contains information not found in any of the Korg manuals. See also Perf RTP.

RTP : definition
Real-Time Parameter. The name for any of KARMA's multiple parameters that are assigned to be available to be manipulated by the control surface, or the Real-Time Parameter settings in the KARMA Performance (Combi/Program). There are two different types of RTP. See:
Perf RTP


Sample :
A digital recording of a particular instrument or other waveform (of either natural or artificial source) which has been recorded at a specific pitch. See also Multisample.

Sampling Mode : function
This Mode lets the user record and edit samples and multi-samples. While in this mode you can record audio samples, edit the waveform data from the audio samples, create and edit multi-samples, convert multi-samples into Programs, obtain samples from other media such as commercial CDs.

Sampling REC Switch : physical controller
One of two keys in the Sampling Switch Group. In Sampling, Program, Combination, and Sequencer modes, pressing this switch enters the initial sampling-ready mode. The switch’s LED will light up. To continue, press the SAMPLING START/STOP switch.

Sampling Start/Stop Switch : physical controller
One of two keys in the Sampling Switch Group. In Sampling, Program, Combination, and Sequencer modes, pressing this when the SAMPLING REC switch is lit will do one of three things, depending on the setting of the Trigger parameter (on the Sampling mode P0: Recording– Audio In/Setup page, and P0–Sampling/Audio In page):
• If Trigger is set to Sampling START SW, sampling will begin immediately.
• If Trigger is set to Note On, sampling will begin as soon as you play a note on the keyboard.
• If Trigger is set to Threshold, sampling will begin as soon as the selected audio source reaches a preset volume level.
On the Sampling mode’s P1: Sample Edit page, pressing this switch will play the selected sample.
This switch is also used to play back WAV files from the media. You can play back WAV files in the directory window of various Media mode pages, in the Media mode Make Audio CD page, in the Sequencer mode audio track editing dialog boxes, and in the Select Directory menu dialog box of the Program, Combination, Sequencer, and Sampling modes.

Sampling Switch Group : physical controllers
Located to the right of the main display and immediately to the left of the TEMPO knob, the Sampling Switch Group consists of two keys, REC and START/STOP.

Sampling Zone Range : description
The Zone Range is a parameter found on the P0: Recording– Preference page, under the heading 'Create Zone Preference'. Immediately after the power is turned on, Position will be 'Right (to selected index)', 'Zone Range' will be 1
Keys, and Original Key Position will be Bottom. This is convenient when you want to sample multiple takes of a phrase or rhythm loop in a single operation.

Save Media Mode
See Media Mode Save for details.

Saving Data : description

( NOTE See Save Template Song for information regarding saving musical data for song tracks and patterns, settings that govern how the musical data is played back such as Meter, Metronome, PLAY/MUTE, Track Play Loop (including Start/End measure), and RPPR settings.)

You can save the various types of data in the M3 by writing it to internal memory, by saving it to a USB storage device (commercially available hard disk, removable disk, CD-R/RW, etc.), or by sending it as a MIDI data dump. The following data can be saved to various types of
• .PCG file:
Programs, Combinations, Drum kits, Global settings, RADIAS formant motions (if the optional
EXB-RADIAS is installed), and user Drum Track patterns (The data that was checked in the check boxes of the Save dialog box will be saved.)
• .SNG file:
Song and cue list.
• .KSC, .KMP, .KSF files:
Lists of sample and multisamples (.KSC file), multisamples (.KMP file), samples (.KSF file).
• .KCD file:
These are track lists for audio CD tracks.
• .EXL file:
System exclusive data from an external device that was saved on the M3 (This allows the M3 to be used as a data filer.)
• .MID file:
Saves a Sequencer mode song in Standard MIDI File (SMF) format.
• .WAV and .AIF files:
A sample you recorded can be exported (written) as a WAVE file or AIFF file.
See also Media Mode Save

Save SEQ : command
This command saves all songs and cue lists from internal memory as a .SNG file. This command is valid only when the current directory is a DOS directory. For example if you specify NEWFILE and execute the save command, a file named NEWFILE.SNG will be saved to the media.

Save Template Song : command
This command saves the program selections, track parameters, and effect settings etc. of the current song as a user template song U00–15. The settings you save here can also be loaded in Song Play mode. Be aware that when you execute this command, all setting data of the save destination User Template Song will be erased and rewritten with the current settings.
Note: The Play Loop and RPPR settings are not saved. If you want to save these settings and the user patterns, execute Save SEQ in Media mode and save them to an external USB storage device.

Scene Change Quantize Window : description
Here you can set a Scene Change Quantize Window that controls a time interval for when the scene changes will occur, and you can also view information about upcoming scene changes. This specifies the metric division by which scene changes will be quantized, in any of the Module Layers. Depending on the setting, this may delay the scene change from occurring until the next beat, next bar, or several bars later.

Scene Matrix : definition
See Module Control Scene Matrix for details.

Selecting Programs or Combinations : definition
There are several different ways to select Combinations. Each one is convenient in a different
way. There are five different ways, the selection of which is dependent on the needs of the user. See the Operations guide under both Combinations and Programs for details.

Set Length
A variable that is entered while in the Create New Song dialog. Set Length refers to the actual length of the song in measures.

Setting the Date and Time : definition
The M3 has an internal calendar, which is used to record the date and time when you save data. You can set the date and time by using the Media Utility page’s Set Date/Time menu command. You will need to make these settings after you purchase the M3, and after you replace the calendar backup battery.

Sequencer : definition
The M3’s sequencer is a 16-track MIDI sequencer that can hold up to 128 songs and 210,000 MIDI events. You can record and play back MIDI data using sixteen MIDI tracks and one master track (containing tempo data, etc.) to control the internal sound generator and your external sound modules. The M3 also provides an In-Track Sampling function that automatically creates the appropriate note data in a track if you sample an external audio source while your song plays.

Sequencer Mode : function
Sequencer Mode allows the Recording, editing, and playback of MIDI tracks. You can Select and Play Songs, edit songs by assigning programs, and altering their respective parameters, in each of 16 MIDI tracks. Record up to 16 MIDI tracks simultaneously, control and play up to four KARMA modules, Sample or resample, Use the M3 as a multi-timbral tone generator, Record and assign patterns (RPPR - Realtime Pattern Play/Record), and create user Drum Track Patterns.

Sequencer FF Switch : physical controller
In Sequencer mode, when the Song is playing or paused, this switch will fast-forward the song. When you press and hold this switch, the switch will light, and the playback will fast-forward. (Fast-forward is disabled during recording, and while the Song is stopped.) In Media mode, this switch fast-forwards the audio CD.

Sequencer Locate Switch : physical controller
In Sequencer mode, this switch will advance or rewind the song to the specified locate point. This lets you jump immediately to any point in the current Song. The default locate point is the first beat of measure 1. To set the locate point to the current position, hold down ENTER switch and then press LOCATE switch. You can also set the Locate point directly via the display menu.

Sequencer Pause Switch : physical controller
In Sequencer mode, this switch pauses the playback of the song. When paused, the switch’s LED will light up. Press PAUSE once again to resume playback, and the LED will turn off. In Media and Sampling modes, this switch pauses audio CD playback.

Sequencer Rec/Write Switch : physical controller
The switch is located in a bank of 6 switches to the right of the main display, and is just above the M3 logo. Pressing the switch once will initiate a record/write in a specified track within a currently running sequencer. See also Sequencer Switch Group.

Sequencer Rew Switch : physical controller
In Sequencer mode, when the Song is playing or paused, this switch will rewind the song. When you press and hold this switch, its LED will light up, and the playback will rewind. (Rewind is disabled during recording, and while the Song is stopped.) In Media and Sampling modes, this switch rewinds the audio CD.

Sequencer Start/Stop Switch : physical controller
This starts or stops recording and playback in Sequencer mode. In Media and Sampling modes, this switch starts and stops playback on the audio CD.

Sequencer Switch Group : definition, physical controllers
This is a Bank of six switches located to the right of the main display and just above the M3 logo. Commonly called Transport Controls, these switches are tasked with controlling the playhead in both playback and record modes. The six switches are labeled as Pause, Rew, FF, **Locate, Rec/Write and Start/Stop.

Set Prog User-Bank Type : description
Here you can assign each program bank USER-A–G for use by either EDS programs or RADIAS programs. Before you execute, uncheck Program in Memory Protect (Global 0–1b). If you execute with this item still checked, a message of “Memory Protected” will appear, and the data will not be loaded. See also [#GlobalMenuCommand]
Note: You can’t select RADIAS if the EXB-RADIAS option is not installed.

Set Song Length : command
This command changes the length of the specified song. When it is executed, the length of the master track will change, and the number of measures played will change.

Shift/Erase Notes : command
This command shifts (moves) or erases the specified note numbers in a specified MIDI track and range of measures.

Single Program : definition
This is a selectable function within the Basic Oscillator Settings page, under the Oscillator Mode heading. Single Programs have one oscillator. Each oscillator is a multisample that is switched by a crossfade velocity switch. You can use dual filters, EG, and LFO to create the sound. See also Double Program.

Sloped Split :
By using the Slope Parameter you can cause the sound between two sets of Programs, assigned to different Key Zones, to fade gradually between them rather than the abrupt change that happens when using a Hard Split. For instance you could set the Bottom Key of timbre 1 to G3, and set the Top Key of timbre 2 to G4, so that these two timbres overlap.

SMF (Standard Midi File) : definition
MIDI messages (along with timing information) can be collected and stored in a computer file system, in what is commonly called a MIDI file, or more formally, a Standard MIDI File (SMF). The SMF specification was developed by, and is maintained by, the MIDI Manufacturers Association (MMA).

SNG files : description
Song Files. Dedicated M3 file format containing songs and cue lists. For details about the structure and format of these files, see page 405 of the M3 Parameter Guide, Media Mode> Files, directories, and icons page.
See also Saving Data

Song : definition
A song consists of MIDI tracks 1–16, a master track, song parameters such as the song name, X–Y control, KARMA function, Drum Track function, effect and RPPR parameters, and 100 user patterns. A maximum of 128 such songs can be created on M3. MIDI tracks 1–16 each consist of setup parameters located at the start location, and musical data within the track. The master track consists of tempo and time signature data.

Song Editing :
You can apply a variety of editing operations to a song. The various operations available are:
Delete Song, Copy from Song, FF/REW Speed, GM Initialize, and Set Song Length.

Song Editing - Patterns :
Patterns can also be edited, the available edit commands are: Step Recording (Loop Type), Event Edit, Pattern Parameter, Erase Pattern, Copy Pattern, Bounce Pattern, Get from Track, Put to Track, Copy to Track, Convert to Drum Track Pattern, and Load Drum Track Pattern.

Song Editing - Tracks :
A number of parameters that affect tracks can also be edited. The various parameters available are: Step Recording, Event Edit, Erase Track, Copy Track, Bounce Track, Erase Measure, Delete Measure, Insert Measure, Repeat Measure, Copy Measure, Move Measure, Create Control Data, Erase Control Data, Quantize, Shift/Erase Notes, and Modify Velocity.

S/P DIF : definition
Located on the back of the M3-Module are the S/P DIF connectors. These jacks provide 24-bit optical S/P DIF input and output, for connecting to computer audio systems, digital mixers, MDs, etc. Optical S/P DIF is sometimes called TOSLINK, and formally named (hold your breath!) IEC60958, EIAJCP-1201. Make sure to use optical cables designed for digital audio. Whenever you use digital audio connections, make sure that all connected systems are set so that there is one and only one word clock master. You can set the word clock for the M3 using the Global page System Clock parameter.

Split : definition
User definable zones which can have specific Programs assigned to them. Multiple zones can be assigned to the keyboard. Splits can be layered and sloped/crossfaded or hard split. See also Key Zones.

Step Recording : command
Allows you to specify the length and velocity of each note numerically, and to input MIDI
data, the pitches, from the keyboard. You can use the Rest button and Tie button to enter a rest or tie.

Step Recording (Loop Type) : command
Here you can perform step recording into a pattern. Step recording, (Loop Type), a pattern differs from step recording a track in that when you reach the end of the pattern, you will return to the beginning and continue recording, in this way continuing to add more data.

SW1 and SW2 : physical controller
Located on the left side of the keybed the two switches, SW1 and SW2, occupy the same area as the Joystick and the Ribbon Strip. You can use these switches to control program parameters via AMS (Alternate Modulation), or effect parameters via DMod (Dynamic Modulation). They can also transpose the keyboard by octaves, turn portamento on/off, or lock the position of the ribbon controller, joystick, or aftertouch. Each switch can work as either a Toggle or Momentary switch. In Toggle mode, the assigned function is switched between on and off each time the switch is pressed. In Momentary mode, the assigned function is active on only as long as you hold down the switch.

System Clock : description
This sets the system clock, or word clock, of the M3. When connecting multiple digital audio devices–such as the M3, a S/P DIF device–it is important that the word clocks of the devices be locked together. If the clocks are not locked, the audio may be marred by pops and clicks. The M3 can lock to incoming clocks from any of its digital inputs, or it can generate its own clock. The System Clock can be set to one of the following;
•Internal: The M3 will use its own internal clock. This is the default setting.
•S/P DIF: The M3 will use the S/P DIF IN as the master clock. 48 kHz word clocks is supported, according to the S/P DIF Sample Rate setting.

System Tempo : definition, physical controller
System Tempo is the overall tempo set for a specific song. The System Tempo can be set by the TEMPO knob, located on the far right side of the M3-Module, or synchronized via external MIDI clocks.


Tap Tempo Switch : physical controller
You can set the tempo of the KARMA function or Drum Track function in Program, Combination, and Sequencer modes by lightly pressing the TAP TEMPO switch several times in succession. In Sequencer mode, you can control the song tempo in this way.
In Sampling mode, you can set Grid to the desired BPM value by lightly pressing the TAP TEMPO switch while the sample plays back.
To enter the tempo, use your finger to gently tap the TAP TEMPO switch. The tempo will be entered when you press the switch twice, but you should tap several times in order to increase the precision. The average of the last sixteen taps will be specified as the tempo.
During playback, lightly press the TAP TEMPO switch several times at the desired tempo. The tempo will follow your tapping in realtime. This is a convenient way to match the tempo in realtime to the beat of a different source.

Tempo : definition
In musical terminology, tempo (Italian for 'time, movement') is the speed or pace of a given piece. Tempo measured by counting the number, and value, of the beats that are played in one minute. It is an extremely crucial element of composition, as it can affect the mood and difficulty of a piece.

Tempo Knob : physical controller
The Tempo Knob is located on the far right side of the M3-Modules. When turned, this knob will change the quarter note value located in the upper right of the display. You can adjust the tempo in a range of 40.00–300.00. The LED located above the TAP TEMPO switch will blink at intervals of a quarter note.
As an alternative to using the TEMPO knob or the TAP TEMPO switch, you can choose the quarter note symbol, located in the upper right side of the display, use numeric keys 0–9 to enter the tempo, and then press the ENTER switch. You can also use the VALUE controller to set the tempo. The LED will blink at the tempo you specify.
Note: The setting of the TEMPO knob is also saved when you write a program.

Tempo Synchronization : definition
You can synchronize some effects parameters, such as LFO speeds and delay times, to the system tempo. This lets you sync the effects to Program LFOs, Drum Track, KARMA, the internal sequencer, and external MIDI clocks. See also Dynamic Modulation.

TFX : definition
Parameters for Total Effects 1 and 2 are found on page 'PROG P9:MFX/TFX'. The purpose of Total effect is to make final adjustments. For the total effect, the direct sound (Dry) is always stereo-in/out. The input/output configuration of the effect sound (Wet) will depend on the selected effect type. The total effect is stereo-in and stereo-out, but the output may be monaural depending on the type of effect you select. See Wet/Dry for information regarding the level of the applied effect[s]. See also MFX Master effects, and IFX Insert effects.

Timbre : definition
The character or quality of a musical sound or voice as distinct from its pitch and intensity. In the M3 a Timbre is one of 16 assignable voices in a Combi. Each Timbre can be assigned one Program, each with its own parameters.

Touch Panel Calibration : command
If input via the display does not work as you expect, or if the edit cell moves to a location other than where you pressed the display, use this command to adjust the sensitivity of the display.
Note: If you are unable to select this command from the menu, go to the main Global page as normal, and then hold down the ENTER button and press 4 on the numeric keypad. This will call up the calibration dialog.
See also Global Menu Command

TouchView : description
TouchView is the name given to the touch sensitive, colour, LCD screen located in the center of the M3-Module. See Main Display for more information. See also Touch Panel Calibration

Transport Controls : definintion
A broad term covering a set of controls which control the playhead of all recording devices. Playhead controlling is the act of either moving a recordable media (such as Reel to Reel Tape) past the record/playback heads, or moving a record/playback indicator along the record tracks on a Digital Audio Workstation. The M3s Transport Controls are of the latter type. For a full listing of the M3s Transport Controls see Sequencer Switch Group

Transpose : definition
Key Transpose shifts the pitch in semitone steps. Edit this setting when you want to transpose the sound of the entire M3. You can adjust the transposition in a range of ±1 octave. In a layer-type combination, you can set two or more timbres to the same program, and create a richer sound by using Transpose to shift their pitch apart by an octave. See also Master Tune and Detune.

Trigger/Triggering :
The user defined conditions necessary for a GE generated phrase or pattern to be activated. There are four main trigger conditions, they are: 'Any' - Triggering will occur each time you play a key, and the phrase or pattern will play from the beginning. 'AKR' - Triggering will occur only the first time you play a key after having released all notes on the keyboard. '1st' - Triggering will occur only at the first note you play after turning on the KARMA function. 'Dyn' - Playing the keyboard will not cause triggering. Triggering will occur when you operate the controller specified by Dynamic MIDI.


[[ #UpdateSystemSoftware]]
Update System Software : command
Here you can update the M3 system. You can download the latest system file onto your computer from the Korg website (http://www.korg.com). For details, please see the Korg website.
Note: For details on how to copy the system file to your USB storage device, please see the explanation on the download page of the Korg website.

User Patterns : definition
Each song can have up to 100 patterns. When using a pattern in a different song, use the Utility menu commands Copy Pattern or Copy From Song etc. to copy the pattern. The pattern length can be specified in units of a measure. Each pattern consists of musical data for one track. It is not possible to create patterns that contain multiple tracks. You can use these patterns by placing them in a MIDI track (Put to Track menu command) or by copying them (Copy to Track menu command). You can also use patterns with the RPPR function of a song.

Utility Media Mode
See Media Mode Utility for details.

USB : definition
Universal Serial Bus, (USB), is a serial bus standard to interface devices to a host computer. USB was designed to allow many peripherals to be connected using a single standardized interface socket and to improve the Plug and play capabilities by allowing hot swapping, that is, by allowing devices to be connected and disconnected without rebooting the computer or turning off the device. The M3 has two USB type A ports and a single USB type B port, all three ports are USB 2.0 compliant.


Value Controller : description
The term for any one of four available controllers that allow you to alter a parameter that has been selected on the main display. When you’ve selected a parameter on the main display, you can edit it using any of the four front-panel VALUE controllers:
• The VALUE slider.
• The Inc ^ and Dec v switches.
• The VALUE dial.
• The numeric keypad.

Value Dial : physical controller
This large round dial is located to the right of the main display. Use this dial to edit the selected parameter’s value. This control is convenient when you want to scroll
through a very long list of selections. This is one of four available ways to adjust selected parameters, see Value Controller for more information.

Value Slider : physical controller
The Value Slider is located immediately to the left of the main display and is labeled as 'Value'. Use this to edit the selected parameter’s value. This control is convenient for making large changes to the value, such as moving quickly to the minimum or maximum setting.
You can use the value slider as a modulation source, but only when the following are true:
• You’re on the Program mode P0: Play– Main page, and the big Program name is selected, or
• You’re on the Combination mode P0: Play– Program T01–08 page, and the big combination
name is selected.
In these cases only, the value slider sends MIDI CC#18, and can be used as a modulation source. This is one of four available ways to adjust selected parameters, see Value Controller for more information.

Velocity : definition
Part of a MIDI Note ON/OFF information signal which indicates how hard a key was pressed.

Velocity Switch/Zone :
Velocity Switches/Zones cause different Programs to sound depending on the velocity (how hard you play the notes). These are completely assignable in terms of how hard/fast a note is pressed in order to trigger a different Program.

Vibrato : definition
A musical effect, produced in singing and on musical instruments by a regular pulsating change of pitch, and is used to add expression and vocal-like qualities to instrumental music. Vibrato can be characterised by the amount of pitch variation ("depth of vibrato") and speed with which the pitch is varied ("speed of vibrato").

Vibrato : function
Parameters (LFO, AMS, JS+Y, and Intensity) for vibrato can be set up in the Controller Setup Page. The parameters can be setup so that vibrato can be initiated by the Joystick, or Aftertouch.

Volume Slider - Main : physical controller
Located near the left side of the M3 Module, The slider adjusts the volume of the (MAIN OUTPUT) L/MONO, R outputs, as well as the volume of the headphone jack. It does not affect any of the other outputs, including S/P DIF OUT (MAIN), the Audio Output (Individual) 1–4, or the optional EXB-FW output.INPUTS.


Wave file : definition
Wave file (WAV or .WAV), WAV is a flexible file format designed to store more or less any combination of sampling rates or bitrates. This makes it an adequate file format for storing and archiving an original recording. WAV, like any other uncompressed format, encodes all sounds, whether they are complex sounds or absolute silence, with the same number of bits per unit of time. On the M3, a sample you recorded can be exported (written) as a WAVE file or AIFF file. A WAV file can also be created from a Song in a process called Resampling.

Waveform : definition
The Waveform is the visual representation of a Wave file. Waveform data can be edited, saved, and merged with Songs. See also Wave file and Resampling.

Waveform Data : definition
See Waveform for details.

Wet/Dry : definition
A user settable parameter within the Prog P8:IFX page. It governs how much of a given effect is applied, with dry being no effect and wet being full effect. See also IFX.

Writing : definition
The act of writing to either internal or external media the contents of a Program, Combination, Sequence, or Song created on the M3. See Saving Data and Media Mode Save for details.

Write Global Setting : description
This command writes Global mode settings (except for Drum Kits). You can also use the SEQUENCER REC/WRITE switch to write data in the same way as the Write Global Setting command. Press the SEQUENCER REC/WRITE switch to access the Update Global Setting dialog box, and press the OK button to write the data. See also Global Menu Command
Note: To write a Drum Kits, execute the appropriate menu command.

Writing/Saving Buffer : description
After you edit, you should write or save your changes as necessary. For example if you’ve edited a program, your changes will be lost if you select another program or turn off the power. The same applies to a combination. Settings you edit in Global mode will be remembered as long as the power is on, but your changes will be lost when you turn off the power.


X-Y/Touch Screen X-Y controller : physical controller
The main display on the M3-Module can also act as a touch sensitive X-Y controller, similar in function to the Korg Kaos Pad. The X–Y controller generates control changes when you touch the display and move your finger (X–Y mode), or records these movements as an X–Y motion, letting you control the OSC1 and OSC2 volume balance or modify the program or effect.When you turn on the X–Y MODE switch, the switch LED will light and the display will change color. See also Main Display.



Zone : definition
A term used to delineate a range or region of activity that various M3 functions use. See the following for function specific information;
Oscillator Velocity Zones
KARMA Key Zones
Keyboard Zones
Sampling Zone Range

Zoom : definition
Zoom is the term used to describe a function that enables the user to change the granularity/depth of view by moving closer or further away to the waveform data.

Unless otherwise stated, the content of this page is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 License